The literal meaning of Ihram is to make haraam (forbidden). When a haji pronounces the Niyyah (intention) of Hajj and Umrah and utters Talbiyah, certain halaal (permissible) things become haraam for him. This combined action (Niyyah and Talbiyah) is called Ihram. The two sheets that a haji wears are figuratively known as Ihram but the real Ihram is Niyyah & Talbiyah. If someone wears these two sheets and does not declare his intention and utter Talbiyah, he does not become a Muhrim. That is why, before Niyyah and Talbiyah, he can cover his head during two rakahs of Nafl, an act which is not allowed in the real state of Ihram.
IHRAM & UMRAH
(STEP BY STEP)
- Preparations for Ihram. Comb your hair, shape the beard, trim your mustache, cut your nails, and remove unwanted body hair.
- Purification. Take a bath with the intention of Ihram otherwise do wudu. Here it is noted that there are two ways of purification:
- Purification of the body, shower or wudu.
- Internal purification, sincere repentance on your sins. Say something like this: “O Allah, I sincerely repent on my sins and seek your forgiveness.”
- Ihram Sheets. Men should wear a sheet of white cloth around the waist and cover the upper body with the other sheet. Women’s ordinary clothes are their Ihram. Both should wear the flip-flops (hawai chappal) so that the middle bones of the upper part of the feet are not covered.
- Nafl Salah. If it is not makruh (undesirable) time, offer two rakahs of nafl for Ihram by covering your heads.
- Advice. If going to Jeddah by an airplane, it is convenient to get into the status of Ihram inside the plane. Here is what you do. Do everything at home or at the airport except Niyyah (intention) and Talbiyah. Have your shower, pray two rakahs of nafl but you are still not in the status of ihram because you haven’t done the main thing yet, i.e., intention and Talbiyah which is done at or before the boundary line called Miqat.
Go to the airplane and sit down with the white sheets on. In a Hajj flight when you are close to Miqat, the pilot will announce that this is the border line to make your intention and to say Talbiyah. Those who did not change their clothes before should do so now although it is not convenient inside the plane. Please note that:
- It is a good idea to ask at the time of boarding if the arrival of Miqat will be announced by the pilot. If not, make your intention and say Talbiyah on your own approximately one hour before you reach Jeddah.
- If you are flying with a group, follow the instructions of the group leader.
Intention and Talbiyah. Now uncover your head and declare your intention. It is assumed that you are performing Hajj al-Tammat’u in which Umrah is performed first as described later in the “Kinds of Hajj”.
“O Allah! I intend to perform Umrah. Please make it easy for me and accept it from me. Amen.”
Immediately after that utter the words of Talbiyah three times and as often afterwards as possible. If you don’t remember it, you can say its translation in English or in any other language but Talbiah or its translation is pronounced in a loud voice by men and in a subdued voice by women.
La shareeka laka.
La shareeka lak.”
|( Here we come,
O Allah, here we come !
Here we come.
No partner have You.
Here we come!
Praise indeed, and blessings, are Yours—
the Kingdom too!
No partner have You!)
After intention and Talbiyah, you are in the status of Ihram and from this time on you should not do acts that are forbidden in Ihram , for example, here are some of the things a muhrim must not do:
- Cover head (men), cover face (women)
- Cover the middle bone of the upper part of the feet (Both men and women))
- Shave / cut hair
- Cut nails
- Wear perfume
- Wear stitched clothing (men) / (Women can wear their ordinay clothes)
- Hunting / killing
Journey towards Makkah. When this sacred journey towards Makkah al-Mukarrama starts, recite Talbiyah frequently on the way. Then enter the city very humbly and with great fondness still reciting Talbiyah.
After arranging for your residence, proceed to the Haram Sharif to perform Umrah.
The ʿUmrah (Arabic: عمرة) is a pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year, in contrast to the Hajj. In Arabic, Umrah means “to visit a populated place”. In the Sharia, Umrah means to perform Tawaf round the Kaaba and Sa’i between Al-Safa and Al-Marwah, after assuming Ihram (a sacred state), either from a Miqat like Zu ‘l-Hulafa, Juhfa, Qarnu ‘l-Manāzil, Yalamlam, Zāt-i-‘Irq, Ibrahīm Mursīa, or a place in Hill. It is sometimes called the ‘minor pilgrimage’ or ‘lesser pilgrimage’, the Hajj being the ‘major’ pilgrimage and which is compulsory for every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it. The Umrah is not compulsory but highly recommended.
HOW TO PERFORM UMRAH
- THE RITES OF UMRAH: The only rites of Umrah are:
- Entering the state of Ihram
- Tawaf of Ka’bah
- Sa’yee between the hills of Safa and Marwah
- Shaving or clipping of the hair
IHRAM FOR UMRAH AND ENTERING MASJID AL-HARAM
- Ihram: You should be already in Ihram for Umrah before entering Mecca as mentioned above.
- Entering Masjid al-Haram: While reciting Talbiyah, enter Masjid al-Haram preferably through Bab-as-Salam with right foot first. Supplicate to Allah and proceed towards Ka’bah. You may recite the following supplication which is usually used before entering a mosque:Allah huma aftah li abwabe rahmate ka
After this, while uttering Talbiyah, move forward to perform Tawaf of Ka’bah.First Sight: At the first sight of Ka’bah, keep your eyes fixed at Baitullah and standing at one side, it is suggested that you do the following:
- Say Allahu Akbar three times
- Say La Ilaha Illallah three times
- Proclaim Darud on our beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) and very humbly and with tears in your eyes supplicate to Allah for whatever you wish. This is a special time for the acceptance of prayers.The idea is to praise and glorify your Creator before proclaiming Darud and supplications. Therefore, in lieu of Allahu Akbar and La Ilaha Illallah, you may recite some other similar holy verses if you so desire.
TAWAF OF UMRAH
Tawaf means circling around something . Here it means moving around Ka’bah seven times with extreme love and devotion.
- Preparation: Pass the upper sheet of Ihram from underneath the right arm and put it on the left shoulder. This act bares the right shoulder and is known as Iztaba. Ablutions (vudu) is essential for tawaf. Reciting of Talbiyah is stopped when you reach Hajar-e- Aswad, the starting point of tawaf.
- Niyyah (Intention): Stand in front of Ka’bah facing Hajar-e-Aswad (the Black Stone) in such a way that the whole Hajre-e-Aswad is on your right side. To achieve this end, you may get help from the black stripe on the floor. This stripe should be on your right side. Then without raising your hands make Niyyah (intention) for Umrah:
” O Allah, I perform Tawaf of Umrah to please You. Make it easy for me and accept it from me.”
- Istilam: Now moving towards right, come in front of Hajar-e-Aswad and kiss it if possible, or touch it with a stick and kiss the stick; if that also is not possible, raise your hands to your ears keeping your open palms towards Hajre-e-Aswad and say: ” Bismillahi Allahu Akbar Wa Lilla Hil Hamd” and drop your hands down. Now point the palms of your hands again towards Hajar-e- Aswad and kiss them. This act of kissing Hajar-e-Aswad or pointing towards it is called Istilam.
Tawaf Starts: After Istilam, turn right and start tawaf counter clockwise.
- The authorities often apply perfume to Hajar-e-Aswad, Rukn Yamani and Multazam. If so, do not touch them while in the state of Ihram, otherwise a dum will be required as a penalty.
- During tawaf, it is not permissible to face or turn your back towards Ka’bah except when you are kissing or pointing towards Hajar-e-Aswad.
“Subhan-Allah wal-hamdu-lillahi wa la ilaha ill-Allah wa-Allahu Akbar wa la haula wa la quwwata illa-billah.”
If you don’t remember these words, you may glorify Allah by repeatedly uttering:
La Ilaha Illallah, etc.
The Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) has said that there are two kalimahs that are light on tongue and (on the day of judgment) they weigh heavy on the scale (Mizan) and are liked by Allah. These kalimahs are:
Subhan Allah Wabe Hamde hi Subhan Allah Hil Azeem (Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizi)
You may also use supplications used in the daily Salah or you may seek forgiveness of Allah and ask Him whatever you wish in your own language.
- Hatim: Hatim is a semi-circular half-built portion which was originally a part of the Ka’bah but which could not be included in the main structure when the Ka’bah was rebuilt. It is obligatory to go around Hatim also while performing tawaf.
- Rukn Yamani and its Supplications: After passing the three corners of the Ka’bah you reach the fourth corner known as Rukn Yamani. Touch it with both hands or with right hand. There is a beautiful supplication to be used while walking between Rukn Yamani and Hajar-e-Aswad:
“Rabbana atina fid-dunya hasanatan wa fil-akhirati hasanatan wa qina azabin-nar.”
Our beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) has repeatedly recited this supplication. The first circuit is complete when you reach Hajar-e-Aswad.
- Seven Circuits: At Hajar-e-Aswad, start the second circuit by kissing it or pointing towards it as you started the first circuit, i.e., come in front of Hajar-e-Aswad, raise both hands to your ears with open palms towards it and say:
” Bismillahi Allahu Akbar Wa Lillah Hil Hamd
Now kiss both palms and drop your hands. After this go around Ka’bah as you did before and similarly complete the seven circuits.
- The End of Tawaf: At the end of seven circuits, do Istilam of Hajar-e- Aswad or point towards it eighth time which is Sunnat Mu’akidah. Also say:
“Bismillahi Allahu Akbar Wa Lillah Hill Hamd”
- Iztaba Finished : Now Iztaba is finished, therefore, you cover your both shoulders with upper portion of the Ihram sheet. This does not apply to women.
- Multazam: Now, come to Multazam which is a place five or six feet in length between Hajar-e-Aswad and the door of Ka’bah. This is a highly sacred place where prayers are accepted. Among a large crowd of people, if it is possible to reach Multazam, cling to it pressing your chest and cheeks, and while trembling and crying with devotion and with all humility seek Allah’s mercy, His blessings and ask Him whatever you wish. If you are unable to come close to Multazam, just face towards it and supplicate from a distance.
- Maqam Ibrahim: Next offer two rakahs of nafls behind and close to Maqam Ibrahim without coveringyour head. If it is zawal time when sajdah is not allowed, you have to wait till this undesirable time is passed and then offer prayers.In the niyyah (intention), say that you are offering 2 rakahs of nafls wajib al- tawaf. Recite Qul ya ayya hal kafroon in the first rakah and Qulhu wallah in the second rakah. After this, supplicate to Allah in Arabic or in your own language. Ask Him whatever you wish and invoke His blessings.If it is not possible to offer this obligatory prayer near Maqam Ibrahim, it can be offered anywhere in Mataf, or in Hatim or anywhere in Masjid al-Haram or even at any place in Haram of Makkah.
Zamzam: Now go to Zamzam well situated in the basement of the Haram about 200 feet from the Ka’bah’s door. There are separate portions for men and women. Zamzam is the best available water in the world. Drink this water to fill while in standing position saying Bismillah. Then supplicate to Allah:
“Allahummah inni as’aluka ilm-an naafi’an wa rizqan waasi’an wa shifa’am min kulli daa’in.”
(O Allah! I implore Thee for beneficial knowledge, for vast provisions, and for cure from every disease.)
The literal meaning of Sa’ey is to run or to make effort, but as a Hajj and Umrah term, Sa’ey denotes
|walking back and forth seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwah which are situated to the south and north of the Ka’bah respectively. Now there are only signs of these hills and the whole route between them is enclosed in a long gallery.
Sa’ey has a historical background. Prophet Abraham left his wife Hazrat Hajra and infant son Hazrat Ismael in the wilderness of Makkah at the command of Allah. The mother and son lived for five days on the food and water they had when the water was completely finished. The mother ran frantically seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwah in
search of water for her son. Suddenly the fountain of Zamzam oozed miraculously near the feet of Hazrat Ismael. Sa’ey is included in the rites of Hajj and Umrah to commemorate this event of search and struggle.
HOW TO PERFORM SA’EY
- Istilam of Hajar-e-Aswad. Before starting Sa’ey, do Istilam of Hajar-e-Aswad again the ninth time or point towards it, saying:
“Bismillahi Allahu Akbar Wa Lillah Hil Hamad.”
Now Proceed towards Safa. It is a Sunnah to be in the state of ablutions during Sa’ey.
- Start of Sa’ey at Safa. Climb the hill of Safa and make intention (niyyah) for Sa’ey:
” O Allah! I perform Sa’ey between Safa and Marwah to please You. Make it easy for me
and accept it from me.”
“Inn-as-Safa wal-Marwah min Sha’a’irillah.”
|(Al-Qur’an 2 : 158)|
(Indeed Safa and Marwah are among the Signs of Allah.)
After this climb Safa to the point from where you can see the Ka’bah, then facing the Ka’bah raise your hands in supplication, say Allahu Akbar three times and recite the following supplication or ask Allah whatever you wish:
“La ilaha ill-Allahu wahdahu la Sharika lahu, lahul-mulku wa lahul-hamdu wa ‘ala kulli shai’in Qadeer.”
If you don’t remember this, you may use the supplication recited earlier during Tawaf:
“Bismillahi Allahu Akbar Wa Lillah Hill Hamd”
- Proceed towards Marwah. Come down from Safa and move towards Marwah while reciting this supplication:
“Subhan-Allah wal-hamdu-lillahi wa la ilaha ill-Allah wa-Allahu Akbar wa la haula wa la quwwata illa-billa.”
If you don’t remember this supplication also, recite Subhan Allah, Alhamdu Lillah, Allahu Akbar repeatedly and keep moving. You may also praise Allah and ask for His mercy in your language or use supplications taken from the daily Salah. When you reach two green pillars between which men have to run but the women walk with their normal pace.
- At Marwah. When on top of marwah, praise Allah facing the Ka’bah and repeat the same supplications that were recited at Safa. One trip is over, second trip will be on Safa and third trip will be on Marwah.
- End of Sa’ey. In the same way, the seventh trip will end at Marwah. In all trips the men will run between the green pillars but the women will walk in a normal way.
- Two raka’at Nafl. If it is not an undesirable (Makrooh) time, offer two raka’ats of nafl in the al-Haram.
- Shaving or clipping of hair. After Sa’ey, men should get their heads completely shaved or get their hair clipped to the length of the upper third of their finger or a little more. Both shaving and clipping are permissible for men, though shaving is preferable. Women are, however, allowed to have a lock of their hair clipped. They are forbidden to shave their heads.
- Umrah is complete. After cutting the hair, umrah is complete. The restrictions of Ihram are finished. Now wear your everyday clothes and lead a normal life. Be thankful to Allah that He provided the opportunity for performing Umrah and lead rest of your life according to the commands of your Creator.
You may perform Umrah as often as you want according to the above procedure. And if you want to perform just a nafl Tawaf, follow the same procedure, however, in a nafl Tawaf there is no Ihram, no Ramal, no Iztaba and even no Sa’ey.